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Old 12-14-2010, 11:28 AM   #1 (permalink)
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Default Toyota AE101/AE111 4A-GE Miata ITB Resources

As I'm piecing together all the parts for my build I figured I'd start a thread with links to resources to help people who plan on installing Toyota Corolla Levin AE101/AE111 4A-GE quad individual throttle bodies onto their Mazda Miata.

You'll want the following items:
  1. Toyota Corolla Levin AE101/AE111 4A-GE throttle bodies
  2. Toyota Corolla Levin AE101/111 4A-GE factory workshop manual
  3. intake manifold adapter
  4. intake manifold gasket between manifold adapter and the head
  5. another gasket between the throttles and the manifold
  6. velocity stacks and venturis
  7. air filters
  8. vacuum block
  9. dual feed fuel rail
  10. fuel injectors
  11. throttle position sensor (TPS)
  12. intake air temperature (IAT) sensor
  13. manifold absolute pressure (MAP) sensor
  14. wideband oxygen (O2) sensor
  15. idle speed control / idle air control valve and adapter block
  16. engine management system
  17. test pipe for tuning so you don't ruin your catalytic converter
  18. synchronization
  19. miscellaneous
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Old 12-14-2010, 11:28 AM   #2 (permalink)
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Default 1. Toyota Corolla Levin AE101/AE111 4A-GE throttle bodies

The 7th generation Toyota Corolla was sold all around the world from 1991-98. Known internally by its code name E100, the Corolla was available with a plethora of different body styles, engines, transmissions, trim levels, options, etc. In Japan, Toyota sold a 2-door coupe variant of the Corolla called the AE101 Levin. This model was optionally available (in GT and GT Apex trim levels) with the famed 4A-GE dual overhead cam 20 valve 1.6L displacement engine with individual throttle bodies. This engine is known by the nickname "silver top" because of its silver painted valve cover and intake plenum. This engine was also available in certain other vehicles like the AE101 Corolla GT, AE101 Corolla Ceres G Type, AE101 Corolla FX GT and AE101 Sprinter and Sprinter Marino G Type.

7th generation (AE101) Toyota Corolla Levin GT Apex


4A-GE "silver top" motor


AE101 individual throttle bodies with intake plenum


AE101 individual throttle bodies








An updated version of the 4A-GE motor was also available in certain 8th generation Corolla (E110) variants like the AE111 Levin BZ-G and BZ-V. This motor is nicknamed the "black top" because of its black painted valve cover and intake plenum.

8th generation (AE111) Toyota Corolla Levin BZ-G


4A-GE "black top" motor




The quad throttle bodies from these cars are what you want to put on your Miata for pure driving enjoyment. The most significant difference to note is that the AE101 "silver top" throttles are 42mm and the AE111 "black top" throttles are 45mm as measured at the butterfly throttle plate. I think the AE101 will be best for most Miatas.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Gabriel Tyler View Post
Silvertop ITB's measure 47mm at the opening where the velocity stacks bolt up.

Blacktop ITB's measure 49mm at the opening where the velocity stacks bolt up.

On the backside of the silvertop ITB's they are round.

On the backside of the blacktop ITB's they are an odd diamond shape.
They pop up on eBay on occasion. Expand your search beyond the USA to other eBay sites if you have to. You can also check with forum sponsors like Tetsuya Garage and REV9 Autosport who specialize in importing parts from Japan. Other possibilities include the Club 4AG classifieds. You can also try searching the Japanese used car part sites like Yahoo! Japan Auctions or Up Garage yourself but you'll need a broker to help you actually acquire them.
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Old 12-14-2010, 11:28 AM   #3 (permalink)
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Default 2. Toyota Corolla Levin AE101/AE111 4A-GE factory workshop manual

Now that you've got your throttles you'll want to take a look at the factory service manuals and parts fiche to better understand what you've got. These resources will help you understand the electronic fuel injection system components. Contains useful information for throttle adjustment, TPS pin outs, exploded views, diagnostics, etc.

Service Manuals
AE101 silver top EFI manual (I'm still trying to find one - appears to be available in Japanese only)
AE111 black top EFI manual
Another source for the AE111 black top EFI manual



Parts Diagrams
First go to Auto Connection Inc. for 4A-GE parts fiche
Then go to ToyoDIY.com to look up the actual part number using the reference number on the parts fiche



Vacuum Diagrams
4 throttles' Vacuum from Toyota Corolla Levin AE101 4A-GE 20v
Vacuum Lines for Toyota 4A-GE 20v AFM 1993



Other Technical Resources
http://www.club4ag.com
http://www.toymods.org.au
http://www.twincam.org
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Old 12-14-2010, 11:30 AM   #4 (permalink)
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Default 3. intake manifold adapter

Techno Toy Tuning (T3) and garageSTAR have developed an intake manifold adapter to fit Toyota Corolla Levin AE101 4A-GE throttles to the Mazda B6 1.6L motor and the Mazda BP 1.8L motor in NA (1994-'97) and NB ('99-'00) fitments.







Quote:
Originally Posted by Gabriel Tyler View Post
Our adapter is specifically designed for the Silvertop ITB's, but the blacktop ITB's will bolt right up as well. For best flow on the blacktop ITB's, you'd want to take a few minutes and port match our adapter with a dremel tool or such.


Jubiride once made an intake manifold adapter to fit AE101/AE111 throttles to the Mazda Miata but it is no longer available and it will be a very rare part to find used.



RS Aizawa once offered an AE101 ITB kit for both B6 1.6L and BP 1.8L motors but now it seems they only offer the intake manifold adapter and fuel rail for the BP 1.8L. Also some of their kits used a different linkage setup with rod ends to actuate each throttle rotated 90° from their stock orientation.

Normal RS Aizawa linkage


90° Rotated RS Aizawa linkage (Note - RSA below is a custom setup using their own CNC trumpets, manifold, linkages, etc)
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Old 12-14-2010, 11:37 AM   #5 (permalink)
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Default 4. intake manifold gasket between manifold adapter and the head

You could use your stock intake manifold gasket I suppose. Some people advise against re-using old gaskets. Here are the OEM part numbers for new ones from Mazda

1990-93 p/n B61P-13-111
1994-97 p/n BP05–13–111
1999-2000 p/n BP4W-13-111

Or you could use a phenolic intake manifold gasket from Hondata also available from 949Racing







Quote:
Originally Posted by 949Racing
Phenolic material. This intake manifold gasket greatly reduces transfer of heat from head to intake manifold. This reduced heat soak and can lower intake manifold air temps as much as 40°
Also available from Sikky Manufacturing





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Old 12-14-2010, 11:37 AM   #6 (permalink)
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Default 5. gasket between the throttles and the manifold

Here is what the OEM gaskets look like



You could reuse the old gaskets but some people advise against reusing old gaskets. Here are the OEM part numbers for new ones from Toyota

First go to Auto Connection to see the parts fiche for AE101 throttles


Then go to ToyoDIY.com to look up the actual part number using the reference number on the parts fiche

22215 GASKET, THROTTLE BODY COVER
22215‑16571 4AGE..AE101 (06/1991 - 08/1992) 4
22215‑16572 4AGE..AE101 (09/1992 - 04/1995) 4

It looks like there are two part numbers (22215-16571 and 22215-16572) available depending on the production date of the donor vehicle. You need to order 4 of them. Go to your local Toyota dealer and see if they can order them for you or not. Let me know if this works for you. If not you may need to enlist the help of a friend in Japan. I ended up getting mine from Toyota Corolla performance experts Performance Autosports located in City of Industry, CA. They cost $14.00 each and were special ordered from Japan and took about 4 weeks to arrive.

You may also want a gasket between the throttle bodies and the velocity stacks.


17179A GASKET, INTAKE MANIFOLD NO.2
17179‑16010 4AGE..AE101 1

It appears that the stock gasket is one continuous piece because of the intake plenum rather than a separate gasket for each throttle body. You may be able to get away with a liquid gasket, a DIY paper gasket (see below) or no gasket at all. You will have to plan accordingly if you are using a cold air intake box or an air filter backing plate that gets sandwiched between the the throttle bodies and the velocity stacks.

Alternatively, you can try making your own gaskets using gasket paper, a mechanical pencil or a ball peen hammer (to transfer the pattern), and a X-Acto knife and/or very small scissors to cut it out. Feel free to dress the gasket with Hylomar

Quote:
Originally Posted by Gabriel Tyler View Post
Reusing the metal gaskets between the ITB's and the adapter plate is fine. Or you can use a cut paper gasket, or you can order new ones from Toyota.

I'm not sure I'd bother with making phenolic spacers between the ITB's and the adapter plate. You've got all of 9" from atmosphere into the head, and the velocity of the air at full throttle is near strong enough to suck a squirrel in. They air isn't going to hang around in the runners long enough to heat up
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Old 12-14-2010, 11:49 AM   #7 (permalink)
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Default 6. velocity stacks and venturis

Air horns. Velocity stacks. Bellmouth air inlets. Fitted to the air inlet they are designed to optimize the turbulent air entering the engine for maximum power and efficiency. Varying the length, diameter, taper and/or shape of the air inlet will have a profound impact on the engine's operation. Generally speaking, short velocity stacks are for achieving maximum peak power at high rpm while longer velocity stacks are for achieving better mid-range power.

Techno Toy Tuning make beautiful bellmouth shaped velocity stacks machined from billet aluminum and they're available in a variety of anodized colors (silver, red, gold, black, blue) but only one length (75mm).











The following suppliers also manufacture or sell AE101 velocity stacks

Jubiride available in a variety of lengths (15mm, 30mm, 50mm, 70mm and 90mm)





RS Aizawa do not keep them in stock they are a special order item so I assume they get them from another shop

Kai Power Original Parts Factory
(Kimoto Racing Art & Imagination)

OER Corporation available in 50mm length

TODA Racing Super Flow Trumpets available for AE101 fitment (Ø48mm) in 30mm & 55mm lengths, AE111 fitment (Ø50mm) in 33mm, 63mm and 88mm lengths.


TODA Racing Trumpet Retainers



There are probably dozens more tuner shops in Japan that have them. Please post a link to specific sources you know of and I'll update the list.



Q: How do you determine the ideal length velocity stack for your engine?
A: Only empirical testing with a dynomometer can be certain but you can use mathematics to help you get close to ideal compromise.



Induction Wave Tuning Calculators



Prof. Gordon P. Blair, Senior Associate, Prof Blair & Associates and W. Melvin Cahoon, Senior Engineer-Specialist, Volvo Penta of the Americas, discuss how to optimise the design of an engine air intake bellmouth and the use of advanced software as an aid to the process
http://www.profblairandassociates.co...mouth_Sept.pdf



The Venturi effect is the reduction in fluid pressure that results when a fluid flows through a constricted section of pipe. The Venturi effect is named after Giovanni Battista Venturi (1746–1822), an Italian physicist. According to the laws governing fluid dynamics, a fluid's velocity must increase as it passes through a constriction to satisfy the conservation of mass, while its pressure must decrease to satisfy the conservation of energy. Thus any gain in kinetic energy a fluid may accrue due to its increased velocity through a constriction is negated by a drop in pressure. An equation for the drop in pressure due to the Venturi effect may be derived from a combination of Bernoulli's principle and the continuity equation.

Now that you've survived flashbacks to your freshman year Physics 101 class, let me explain what this means to ITBs. You may want to fit a venturi tube in the air inlet to further enhance the venturi effect beyond what the velocity stack can accomplish on its own. A venturi is a good way to fine tune your intake and increase intake velocity, particularly if your ITBs are a little too big for your motor.


Kai Power / OER


Jubiride also offer venturis for the AE101 throttles in 36mm, 38mm and 40mm diameters.
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Old 12-14-2010, 11:49 AM   #8 (permalink)
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Default 7. air filters

Open stacks look and sound good but they're bad for your engine. The air contains dirt particles that can quickly damage cylinder bores. There are many types of filters available:

Screens

Screens offer the least amount of particle filtration. Next to running an open intake, they offer the least amount of air resistance. Good for keeping large pebbles, vermin, etc. from getting sucked into your engine.

Jubiride screens fit between the throttle body and velocity stack.




P.A.S.S. Racing sell them for $90 LINK


Pod Filters

Pods offer much better filtration but they can be more restrictive and can reduce the venturi effect of the velocity stack.





Techno Toy Tuning supplies UNI Two Stage Competition Air Filter p/n NU-2471 ST to fit their velocity stacks. It uses a friction fit to stay in place. Works best when clean and lightly oiled with UNI Foam Filter Oil.





Sausage Filters

Sausage filters mount to a backing plate that is fitted between the throttle bodies and the velocity stacks. They offer excellent filtration (like pod filters) and if sized properly they don't reduce the venturi effect of the velocity stacks like pod filters can.







http://www.itgairfilters.com
http://www.pipercross.net



Cold Air Box with a Cone or Panel Filter Attached

Here is a cold air box that was once offered by now defunct Fuji Racing fitted to OER/Fuji Racing IRTBs. High temperature silicone rubber cooling air ducting hose was used to route cold air from the radiator opening in the front bumper. It shouldn't be too difficult to fabricate something similar for your AE101 IRTBs.










TODA Racing Universal Fit Dry Carbon High Power Surge Tank
Part No. 17110-F20-0FD
Price ¥120,000 = $1,433 USD!






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Old 12-14-2010, 11:49 AM   #9 (permalink)
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Default 8. vacuum block

A vacuum block is a great way to keep your vacuum lines organized and it also helps provide a better signal for your MAP sensor and vacuum brake booster. Each intake runner will have its own vacuum port and you'll want to connect each one to the vacuum block.

You can roll your own but it's easier to just pay $40 to buy the billet aluminum one from Golden Eagle Manufacturing.



Quote:
Originally Posted by Golden Eagle
-Specifically designed for turbo charged engines that require multiple vacuum sources
-Works with individual throttle bodies.
-Precision CNC machined from 6061T6 billet aluminum
-Has six ( 6 ) usable 1/8 NPT ( Pipe Thread ) ports for items such as fuel pressure regulator, -blow-off valve, MAP sensor, boost controller, boost gauge and any other engine components that require a vacuum source
-Every Vacuum Manifold comes complete with installation instructions, 3/4" Boss plug, 3/4" boss to 1/2" barbed hose fitting, and mounting hardware
-All Golden Eagle Mfg. Vacuum Manifolds carry a limited 1 year warranty.
-Comes in five different colors : Black, BLue, Red, Polished, and Titanium

Click here for installation instructions.
Here you can see how Quinn mounted his vacuum block. You can use the hardware supplied by Golden Eagle or you can get fancy and use blue anodized NPT to hose barb fittings like Quinn did. Summit Racing and JEGS have all the fittings you need. Be sure to always use quality vacuum hose that will not collapse. You could even use braided stainless steel vacuum hose for that professional look.

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Old 12-14-2010, 12:37 PM   #10 (permalink)
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Default 9. dual feed fuel rail

Per Tronik's post here, it would appear that you will need an aftermarket dual feed fuel rail (at least on the 1.6L) to solve an interference issue with the stock fuel rail supply line.

Flyin' Miata Dual Feed Fuel Rail with Stainless Steel Feed Lines



Quote:
Originally Posted by Flyin' Miata
Miatas have a bit of a fuel distribution problem. Our exclusive dual-feed rail ensures that all the cylinders get the fuel they need so you can make power safely. It also maximizes the amount of fuel each injector can deliver.

In our usual fashion, the rail is a bit over-engineered. The rail itself is machined out of an aluminum billet and anodized. The feed lines are stainless steel with an AN fitting. The fittings on the rail are sealed with an o-ring and can be easily clocked to any direction you`d like, unlike the pipe threads more commonly seen. And of course, it all looks so good!

Design update: the 1999-05 models now use stainless lines throughout, with a special adapter that simply clicks on to the factory hard lines.

Please note that you cannot use a 1990-97 fuel pressure regulator on the 1999-05 version of this rail. The 1994-97 version of the rail may require some minor clearancing of the intake manifold to clear the pressure regulator. Not compatible with European NBs that use a return fuel line.

Click here for install instructions


M-Tuned Dual Feed Fuel Rail

Available for 1990-93 B6 1.6L motors



Quote:
Originally Posted by M-Tuned
- Billet Aluminum High Flow Dual Feed Fuel Rail
- Direct bolt on for your 1.6 Miata engine
- 3/8" NPT Female thread on each end.
- CNC Machined from Billet 6061 Aluminum and anodized black.
- Our past experience with high horsepower Miatas shows that you need to supply your engine with higher fuel capacity and flow
- Give yourself piece of mind when turbo or supercharging your Miata.
and 1994-2005 BP 1.8L motors






Quote:
Originally Posted by M-Tuned
- Billet Aluminum High Flow Dual Feed Fuel Rail
- Direct bolt on for your Miata BP series engine
- One Rail fits 1994-2005. Great if you decided to upgrade your old cylinder head to a new 99+ head.
- 3/8" NPT Female thread on each end.
- CNC Machined from Billet 6061 Aluminum and anodized black.
- Our past experience with high horsepower Miatas shows that you need to supply your engine with higher fuel capacity and flow
- Larger internal bore than any other 1.8L Miata rail offered.
- Give yourself piece of mind when turbo or supercharing your Miata.

Braineack's DIY Dual Feed Fuel Rail
Quote:
The stock fuel rail on a high HP Miata can lead to #4 failure. Fuel is distributed unevenly and injectors #1 and #2 tend to get more fuel than #3 and #4. There have been many cases on the miata.net where not enough reached the #4 injector and the piston burns up leading to engine failure. (Also largely due to cooling system)

One simple cost effective "solution" is making a dual feed fuel rail. It's actually very simple and require little tools. On the stock rail fuel is fed into one side and out between the #3 and #4 injector. To modify the rail you simple feed the fuel to both sides of the rail making the fuel distributed more evenly throughout the injectors.

What you need:

Sockets
21/64" Drill bit
1/8" NPT tap
1/8" to 5/16" brass fitting
5/16" Brass Tee
2 - 1' sections of 5/16" fuel injection line
JB Weld
Grease
5/16" Hose Clamps


Procedure:

First you need to remove the fuel rail. Start by unhooking the harnesses to the injectors. Then unbolt it (2 12mm bolts). Don't lose the spacers. Open your fuel lid to help depressurize the fuel lines a little. Stuff rags under the rail. Disconnect the fuel lines - note - they will spill fuel, try to get it on the rags. Remove the injectors and keep them aside.

With the fuel rail removed you can start modifying. Grease up you drill bit and drill into the far end of the fuel rail. The grease helps collect any metal shavings. Tap the hole with your 1/8" tap. Thoroughly clean the rail. Make sure there are NO metal shavings left in the rail. Screw the brass fitting in place. JB Weld the fitting to the rail to make for a good seal. Cure for 24 hours.

In the engine, attach the brass tee to the fuel line attach to the hard line. Attach the two sections of fuel hose to the tee. Reinstall the injectors to the fuel rail. Get the rail into position and attach the two sections of hose to the existing fitting and new fitting on the rail. Reinstall the rail - harness - gas cap - battery terminal.
Vishnu Performance Tuning fuel rail no longer available
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Old 12-14-2010, 12:38 PM   #11 (permalink)
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Default 10. fuel injectors

Choose the correct fuel injector for your power needs

http://miataturbo.wikidot.com/fuel-injectors

Use your programmable engine management system to precisely control your fuel injectors.

Ideally used fuel injectors would be cleaned and flow-tested prior to use. You may want to get new o-rings and pintle caps, too.
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Old 12-14-2010, 12:38 PM   #12 (permalink)
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Default 11. throttle position sensor

A throttle position sensor (TPS) is used to monitor the relative position of the throttle valve in an internal combustion engine. The sensor is usually located on the throttle shaft so that it can directly monitor the position of the throttle valve. The sensor is usually a potentiometer, and therefore provides a variable resistance dependent upon the position of the valve (and hence throttle position). The sensor signal is used by the engine control unit (ECU) as an input to its control system. The ignition timing and fuel injection timing (and potentially other parameters) are altered depending upon the position of the throttle, and also depending on the rate of change of that position.

Most likely you bought your used AE101 throttles complete with the TPS already attached. If not, you'll need to get one.








Parts fiche for AE101 throttles


89452 SENSOR, THROTTLE POSITION (FOR E.F.I.)
p/n: 89452‑22080
Description:AE101..GT1
Price: $114.64

The same TPS is also used on 2JZ-GTE, 3RZ-FE, 2RZ-FE and 5VZ-FE Toyota motors.

2JZ-GTE Throttle body/TPS diagnostics
Quote:
Originally Posted by 2JZ-GTE EFI Manual

INSPECT THROTTLE POSITION SENSOR
(a) Disconnect the throttle opener vacuum hose from the throttle body.
(b) Apply vacuum to the throttle opener.
(c) Insert a 0.54 mm (0.021 in.) or 0.70 mm (0.028 in.) feeler gauge between the throttle stop screw and stop lever.
(d) Using an ohmmeter, measure the resistance between each terminal.





IF NECESSARY, ADJUST THROTTLE POSITION SENSOR
(a) Loosen the 2 set screws of the sensor.



(b) Insert a 0.65 mm (0.026 in.) feeler gauge between the throttle stop screw and stop lever.



(c) Connect the tester probe of an ohmmeter to the terminals IDL and E2 of the sensor.
(d) Gradually turn the sensor clockwise until the ohmmeter deflects, and secure it with the 2 set screws.



(e) Recheck the continuity between terminals IDL and E2.



(f) Reconnect the vacuum hose to the throttle body.


Parts fiche for AE111 throttles


89452 SENSOR, THROTTLE POSITION (FOR E.F.I.)
p/n: 89452‑12090
Description: AE111..BZG, BZR, BZV
Price: n/a

Quote:
Originally Posted by AE111 EFI Manual


INSPECT THROTTLE POSITION SENSOR

(a) Disconnect the throttle position sensor connector.
(b) Insert a feeler gauge between the throttle stop screw and throttle lever.
(c) Using an ohmmeter, measure the resistance between each terminal.





(d) Reconnect the sensor connector.


Quote:
Originally Posted by FooSchnickens
The MS reads TPS based off of the signal wire coming from the TPS. You then calibrate that signal with the MS by taking s snapshot of the TPS closed, then wide open. It figures out the rest. For the wiring, you just need to figure out which wire is which. If the toyota is a 3-wire then it should be pretty straightforward like the the OER setup. One wire will be a 12V input, one will be the signal output and the last will be a ground which should all plug into the stock harness no problem. Just solder the toyota connector onto the stock harness and you're good to go.
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Old 12-14-2010, 12:40 PM   #13 (permalink)
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Default 12. intake air temperature sensor

Below is an excerpt from the MegaSquirt MegaManual Temperature Sensors section. Although it says naturally aspirated engines can use a closed element sensor for both coolant temperature (CLT) sensor and intake air temperature (IAT) sensor, it is recommended to use the open element IAT sensor for ITBs. A closed element IAT sensor would be fine on a 'normal' naturally aspirated engine since you have a longer intake tract as well as a plenum/manifold that would allow the slower reacting closed element IAT sensor time to measure the temperature of the air coming into the engine. With ITBs the amount of time the air comes into contact with anything other than the combustion chamber is so short that you really need a rapid and accurate reading of the air just as it enters the velocity stacks. Therefore, the faster acting open element IAT sensor should be used. One nice thing about the MegaSquirtPNP ECU is that it's pre-configured for the stock Miata sensor or the GM IAT so you don't have to do any calibration at all in easytherm. Simply select the sensor type from a dropdown and you're good to go.


Quote:
MegaSquirt uses coolant and air temperature sensors to determine the warm-up characteristics of the engine and the density of the intake air. They are essential to proper functioning of a MegaSquirt® controller. Both sensors are Negative Temperature Coefficient (NTC) thermistors. This means that they are resistors whose resistance decreases as their temperature goes up.

MegaSquirt® uses the temperature sensor as one leg of a voltage divider. 5.00 Volts (we will call this Vs) is supplied to a default 2,490 Ohm (2.49K Ohm) resistor (called a "bias resistor", and we will denote it as Rb) and this resistor is connected to the temperature sensor (denoted here by Rs) which in turn is connected to ground.



The voltage between the two resistors is:

V = Vs * (Rs/(Rb+Rs)) = 5.00 * (Rs/(Rs+2490))

Resistor Rp does not affect the voltage divider, it simply limits the current to the processor pin (there should be very little current anyhow, the input is "high impedance").

MegaSquirt reads this voltage as a series of voltage steps: 256 0.020 Volt steps for MS-I, 1023 0.005 Volt steps for MS-II. The conversion from volts to steps is done by the analog-to-digital converter (ADC).

Before electronic fuel injection, the temperature sensors were used mostly to drive gauges or 'idiot lights', rather than control the engine. In addition, these gauges were highly damped, and electrical noise in the signal was not a problem. As a result, many non-EFI vehicles have 'one-wire' temperature sensors, and ground the sensor through the engine block. However, when EFI came along (in the mid 1980s) temperature sensors were used to determine the instantaneous fuelling and spark advance in some cases, and reducing noise became essential. The manufacturer's solution was 'two-wires' sensors that use a dedicated ground return to the ECU (instead of the much more noisy high current ground). MegaSquirt® controllers adopt a similar scheme. DB37 pin #19 is used for the sensor ground, and the IAT, CLT and TPS ground wires should be run to it (or the labeled spots ('ret') on the relay board that connects to pin #19). In addition, if you are using a VR trigger, you should bring the VR ground back to the MegaSquirt® controller (pin #2 or pin #7 - pin #2 will be a dedicated ground for the VR circuit in future revisions, pin #7 is a general ground, as is #2 on V2.2 and V3.0 main boards).

Naturally aspirated engines using MegaSquirt® can use the same sensors for coolant and air temperature. These sensors are inexpensive (roughly $18 US) GM units readily available from any parts store (GM part number 12146312, may have been replaced by #15326386). They have a 3/4" hex.

However, you will save some money if you can source these from a salvage yard, with the mating connectors (which are GM #12162193). If you are unable to get them this way, consider using a “spade-type” connector or reusing your existing sensors (with EasyTherm and/or resistor calibration adjustments).

Turbocharged or supercharged engines should use an open-element air temperature sensor for a faster response time. Here are some reported part number equivalents for both the coolant and air temperature sensors (verify before ordering):

Coolant temperature sensor (CLT)
GM #12146312
(may have been replaced by #15326386)
Standard TX3
GP SORENSEN TSU81
AC DELCO 213-928
NIEHOFF DR134AK
WELLS SU109 MSD 2310 (includes connector)

Connector Pigtail (CLT)
(mushroom key way)

Wells PN 254
NAPA PN ECHTSC200
Conductite/Dorman 85100
(~$10 @ Autozone (PN 047131))


Air temperature sensor (IAT)
GM #25036751
Standard AX1
GP SORENSEN 779-19001
AC DELCO 213-190
NIEHOFF IGNITION TS83631 was DR-136W
WELLS SU107 MSD 2320 (includes connector)

Connector Pigtail (IAT)
(square key way)
Wells PN 254
Wells PN 235
NAPA PN ECHTSC300
Niehoff PN PS77421 (~$15)
Conductite/Dorman PN 85110

The coolant temperature sensors were apparently found in the following applications:
  • ALL GENERAL MOTORS (Chevrolet, Pontiac, Buick, Oldsmobile, Cadillac, GMC) 81-96
  • HONDA TRUCK 94-96
  • ISUZU TRUCK 92-96
  • JEEP 82-87

Note: A few early installations using the open-cage MAT sensor experienced vibration induced failure of the sensor. The thermistor bulb is supported only by two thin wire legs. These can apparently fatigue and break when installed in high vibration environments, such as occurs when you screw it directly into an intake manifold. Several people solved the problem by "potting" the legs of the thermistor with O2-sensor-safe silicone (most silicone sealer/adhesives destroy O2 sensors, so pay attention!), squeezing it down inside the sensor body but leaving the bulb exposed.



Note that these sensors have different connectors. The coolant temperature sensor uses a “mushroom” shaped key way where it inserts into the sensors, while the open element intake air temperature sensor uses a “rectangular” connector key way.



The wiring schematic for DB37 shows only one input for all of the sensors (except for the two for the TPS). The recommended GM sensors all have two wire connectors. The missing connection is a ground wire for the sensor. Sensor grounds should be brought to the same grounding point on the engine block as the MegaSquirt ground, unless they are grounded through the body of the sensor.

If you are looking for sensors with a standard “spade” type connector and a ground through the body of the sensor (not recommended, see above), GM part number 25036135 is what you need - see the illustration below:


(There is also a spade type GM sensor with a ¼" NPT thread available as GM part number 25036292. This part was originally used as an oil temperature sensor on 84-87 Corvettes, and has the same resistance curve as other GM sensors.)

The resistance curves for the MegaSquirt®/General Motors coolant and air temperature sensors, as well as various part number cross-references, are listed below:

GM Temperature Sensor Resistance

Degrees F - Degrees C - Ohms
-40º -40 100,700
0º -18 25,000
20º -7 13,500
40º 4 7,500
70º 21 3,400
100º 38 1,800
160º 71 450
210º 99 185

The thread for the recommended General Motors (and equivalent replacement) coolant and air temperature sensors for the MegaSquirt® controller is 3/8 inch National Pipe Taper [NPT] thread. A 9/16 inch pilot hole is required for the tap. Recall that pipe sizes are based on nominal inside diameters, not outside diameters as for standard National Coarse [NC] and National Fine [NF] threads. The sensors are designed to be tightened to 20 N-m (15 lb·ft).

Approximate sizes

Nominal Pipe Size (actual ID is slightly bigger) - Approx. Outside Thread Diameter - Drill Size
1/8" 3/8" 5/16"
1/4" 1/2" 7/16"
3/8" 5/8" 9/16"

These sensors were been used on practically all GM cars in the 1980s and are easy to find - the same is true for the correct connectors. However, other sensors can be used if the EasyTherm software is used to recalibrate your MegaSquirt® EFI controller.

Easy Therm
If you are using non-standard coolant and/or air temp sensors with a MS-I™ controller, you must create “.inc” files that are essentially look-up tables for your MegaSquirt® EFI controller to relate resistance to temperature (For MS-II™ you can change the curves directly in MegaTune, with not other steps necessary). These files must then be compiled into one .s19 file, and then down loaded to the MegaSquirt® controller. EasyTherm makes it very easy to use “non-standard” temperature sensors with the MegaSquirt® controller. It does three things that otherwise can be a bit of a pain:
1) It automatically creates the .inc files from 3 temperature/resistance pairs. Entry in degrees Fahrenheit or degrees Celsius is allowed. Non-standard bias resistor values can be entered.
2) It creates the .s19 file using the above data - you do not need a compiler!
3) It downloads this .s19 file to the MegaSquirt® controller via the serial link (once R6 is shorted to enter bootloader mode), and reboots the MegaSquirt® - so you do not need to mess with Hyperterminal.

Do not forget that you need to copy the applicable .inc files that EasyTherm creates to your MegaTune directory after a successful down load.

Note that you do not need EasyTherm with MS-II, you can calibrate the thermistor tables directly in MegaTune (under 'Tools') without reloading code.

To use a MegaSquirt® controller with an air cooled engine, you will have to decide where the best place is for the coolant sensor: in the oil, or on the cylinder head (CHT). There are various arguments for and against using either CHT or oil temperature as the 'coolant' temperature input on air cooled motors. A lot depends on whether the motor is substantially oil cooled or not. Since the CTS input is used for warmup enrichment, you want something that responds fairly rapidly, so this is highly engine-dependent.

For high temperature applications (i.e. air cooled engines with a CHT), in MS-II you can set the #unset EXPANDED_CLT_TEMP by changing:
#unset EXPANDED_CLT_TEMP
to
# set EXPANDED_CLT_TEMP:
Then the upper temperature limit should be 600 degrees F. This is from the INI notes:
; FAHRENHEIT (Expanded/Normal):
; Low Limit: -40F/-40F
; High limit: 600F/300F
; Low danger: 150F/50F
; Low warning: 200F/150F
; High warning: 325F/200F
; High danger: 350F/220F

However, you have to calibrate the thermistor table(s) appropriately. However, note that the tuning software limits the temperature range. The thinking is that if you are at an extreme it is probably a bad or missing sensor, so it goes to a default value. This isn't a big deal in TunerStudio though, you can change these limits in the ms2ReferenceTables.ini file. You can adjust these limits if EXPANDED_CLT_TEMP is set. Currently only the CLT sensor respects EXPANDED_CLT_TEMP, the IAT does not.

IAT min = -40, max=350 if outside that range it goes to 70 CLT min = -40, max=350 if outside that range it goes to 180 CLT with EXTENDED_CLT_TEMP min = -40, max=400 if outside that range it goes to 350 default

Here is the section of the ms2ReferenceTables.ini file that controls that:

; tableLimits (optional) = intentifier, min, max, defaultVal
; will set the default value if value is outside the min and max limits.
tableLimits = 001, -40, 350, 70
#if EXPANDED_CLT_TEMP
tableLimits = 000, -40, 400, 350
#else
tableLimits = 000, -40, 350, 180
#endif"

So the user can just edit the one line in ms2ReferenceTables.ini using notepad.exe or something similar to change it from: tableLimits = 000, -40, 400, 350 to something like:

tableLimits = 000, -40, 600, 350

or similar, and it should work once the user re-burns the table.

The additional problem with very high temperatures is that the difference in voltage gets very small (and MegaSquirt can only read discrete voltage steps, about 5 milliVolts per step from 0.00 to 5.00). Also, if the volts at the processor pin gets very near 5.00 (~4.98) the values defaults to a safe value because it assumes there is an open circuit.

The ADC count result from the voltage divider circuit (above) is:
ADC Count = V/Vs = ADC max count * (Rs/(Rb+Rs))
= 255 * (Rs/(Rs+2490)) for a MS-I (8-bit ADC)
= 1023 * (Rs/(Rs+2490)) for a MS-II (10-bit ADC)

One thing you can do is use a lower bias resistor (R7 for the CLT circuit) - this will give you more resolution at the high end of the temperature scale (but loose it at the cold end). The default value is 2.49K Ohms, and if that is what is in there you might try 2.2K Ohms or less (down as low as 1.0K). Note that you have to re-calibrate the thermistor tables when you change resistor values.

Here is a simple ADC count calculator that shows the number ADC steps for a given bias resistor and sensor resistance. If the ADC count values are very high or very low at your sensor's resistance (at a given temperature), the temperature range may be restricted:

Bias resistor:
Ωhms
Voltage supply:
Volts Sensor resistance: Ωhms ADC resolution: 8 bits 10 bits ADC Count:

For air-cooled use, side of the argument says to use the CHT over the oil, as the oil takes over twice as long to get to operating temperature than water in a water-cooled car does. The engine does not need to run rich for long periods, only enough to keep the car driveable while it is warming up. Once the cylinder head is up to temperature, the car is usually quite driveable. For an air cooled engine you can drill and tap into a fin in the head for the CHT sensor.

The other side of the argument says that it does not matter if the oil warms more slowly, you can just set the warm-up enrichment to come off at a lower temperature. In that case, the GM coolant sensor fitted in the oil (sump) will work nicely. Search the archives for extensive discussions on these points. It is your decision.
GM Closed Element CLT / IAT Sensor with Pigtail
Quote:
Originally Posted by DIYAutoTune
GM Closed Element CLT / IAT Sensor with Pigtail

Suitable for use as a Coolant Temperature Sensor (CLT) on all vehicles, or as an Intake Air Temp Sensor (IAT) on naturally aspirated vehicles. These are the proper GM-style sensors for use with the MegaSquirt line of ECUs and include a 6" wire pig-tail with weatherproof connector.

Threads are 3/8 NPT

For supercharged / turbocharged vehicles needing an IAT sensor we have the GM Open Element IAT Sensor with Pigtail in stock.

If you need to calibrate your MS for this sensor, here's the calibration data we use for them for a three point curve.
Temperature Ohms
48 degrees F 7000
87 degrees F 1930
146 degrees F 560


GM Open Element IAT Sensor with Pigtail
Quote:
Originally Posted by DIYAutoTune
GM Open Element IAT Sensor with Pigtail

Recommended 'Fast-Response' Intake Air Temp Sensor (IAT) for use on forced induction vehicles. These are the proper GM-style sensors for use with the MegaSquirt line of ECUs and include a 6" wire pig-tail with weatherproof connector.

Threads are 3/8" NPT

If you need to calibrate your MS for this sensor, here's the calibration data we use for them for a three point curve.
Temperature Ohms
48 degrees F 7000
87 degrees F 1930
146 degrees F 560


Chris Sargent's RV-7A Project - Temperature Sensors
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Old 12-14-2010, 12:40 PM   #14 (permalink)
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Default 13. manifold absolute pressure (MAP) sensor

The manifold absolute pressure (MAP) sensor provides instantaneous air intake manifold pressure information to the engine management system. The data is used to calculate air density and determine the engine's air mass flow rate, which in turn determines the required fuel metering for optimum combustion (see stoichiometry). If you are using MegaSquirt EMS then you are lucky as the circuit board already has a built-in MAP sensor so you don't need to do anything extra. If you are using a different EMS then you will need to install a MAP sensor.

Below is an excerpt from the MegaSquirt MegaManual MAP Sensor section

Quote:
The most fundamental measurement MegaSquirt® EFI controller uses to determine the amount of fuel to inject is the manifold absolute pressure. The MegaSquirt® EFI controller uses the MPX4250AP as a MAP sensor, and it is supplied with ALL the units from the current group buy. It will correctly measure from a near vacuum to ~21 psi of boost. It is suitable for all naturally aspirated and most turbocharged engines. If you are going to run more than about 20 lbs of boost, you may need a MAP rated at a higher pressure. Check the 3-bar MAP sensor page for more information.

The MegaSquirt® EFI controller normally mounts the MAP sensor in the MegaSquirt enclosure, where it is protected from mechanical and electrical stresses (be sure to mount it with the specified screws, don't use tie wraps or other fasteners, they can distort the case and cause false readings and/or sensor failure). As noted in the assembly guide, it can be mounted remotely, if desired. This was discussed in detail in the assembly guide.

You need to run vacuum tubing from the sensor to the engine intake manifold. You can use a nipple on the throttle body that has full-time engine vacuum (i.e. NOT ported vacuum). The source you choose should have a high vacuum at idle, if it does not, it is a ported source, and you need to hook your vacuum line somewhere else (either another nipple on the throttle body, or one connected directly to the intake manifold).

Make sure the vacuum tubing you use is appropriate for automotive environments, so that it will not melt, dissolve from oil, etc.

Don't worry about how long your MAP sensor vacuum hose is. Intuitively it seems that shorter should be better. However, a few people have done tests to see how bad the effect of a long hose was on vacuum signal propagation. With a ~100 foot (~30 meters) coil of rubber tubing in between the MegaSquirt® and the engine, the result was that no delay was apparent. This was with about a 10 millisecond resolution clock. The reason for this is that air has so little inertia that it moves very quickly in response to a vacuum (this is how we fill the cylinders, after all!).
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Old 12-14-2010, 12:40 PM   #15 (permalink)
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Default 14. wideband oxygen sensor

Automotive oxygen sensors, colloquially known as O2 sensors, make modern electronic fuel injection and emission control possible. They help determine, in real time, if the air fuel ratio of a combustion engine is rich or lean. Since oxygen sensors are located in the exhaust stream, they do not directly measure the air or the fuel entering the engine. But when information from oxygen sensors is coupled with information from other sources, it can be used to indirectly determine the air-to-fuel ratio. Closed-loop feedback-controlled fuel injection varies the fuel injector output according to real-time sensor data rather than operating with a predetermined (open-loop) fuel map.

Most OEM oxygen sensors measure the air-fuel ratio over a very narrow range of values consistent with an engine management system that is already in a very good state of tune. A wideband oxygen sensor measures the air-fuel ratio over a much wider range of values which allows you to dial in a good tune with your aftermarket engine management system. You'll need the sensor itself, a sensor controller, a threaded bung to mount the sensor into the exhaust stream and some electrical wire to connect the sensor output to your engine management system. Most people prefer a gauge that graphically depicts the instantaneous sensor reading. Although a gauge is not strictly necessary it is always good to keep a close eye on your air-fuel ratio to safeguard your engine.

AEM UEGO
Innovate Motorsports LC-1
Innovate Motorsports MTX-L
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Old 12-14-2010, 12:40 PM   #16 (permalink)
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Default 15. idle speed control / idle air control valve and adapter block

Your Miata was originally equipped with an idle air control (IAC) valve to help control and stabilize the engine idle speed during certain operating conditions like cold start or when the air conditioning compressor engages or disengages. You may choose to ditch the IAC valve, use the Miata IAC valve (with aftermarket adapter block due to the missing plenum), use the Toyota idle speed control (ISC) valve or use the JEEP 4.0L IAC valve and adapter block setup from DIYAutoTune.

Miata ISC (Idle Speed Control) Troubleshooting, Replacement, Repair By Ross Kuhre

Quote:
Originally Posted by FooSchnickens
I believe the 1.6 IAC uses a stepper motor and the later 1.8 IAC is PWM. Again, if you use the PnP these settings are built into the software and are only a click away. The only fiddling you should have to do is setting the point at which it relies on the IAC to control engine speed and what its fully open and fully closed values are. This is a simple process and only takes a few moments. This is really the most difficult to set up since you really need to have the car running and warmed up. The base values should be more than enough to get it started, though. They were for me. As far as getting the IAC connected to the intake tract you have a couple of options. You could go with the Jeep option from DIY, you could try to source a vac block from an OER kit, or you might be able to use that piece from Kai Power. I haven't looked at it in detail, but it looks like it accepts the Miata IAC. It could be for using the Toyota IAC, but even then it'd just be a matter of determining what system it uses (motor vs PWM), splicing the harness and then setting the min/max values.
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Old 12-14-2010, 12:40 PM   #17 (permalink)
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Default 16. engine management system

I'm planning to run Megasquirt. It is the Linux of the aftermarket standalone engine management world. CR.net forum sponsor DIYAutotune is to Megasquirt as Red Hat is to Linux; they make something complicated relatively easy. DIYAutotune offer a MS1 based MegaSquirtPNP for the Miata as well as MS2 based DIYPNP and even MS3 setups for those who want to be on the cutting edge. They also offer all the other things you need to make your Megasquirt ECU work like sensors, connectors, etc. Braineack (admin at MiataTurbo.net) also assembles Megasquirt ECUs in his spare time and is wealth of knowledge.



Here are links to all the Megasquirt stuff
http://www.bgsoflex.com/megasquirt.html
http://www.msefi.com/index.php
http://www.megamanual.com
http://www.msruns.com/index.php
http://www.msextra.com/
http://www.ms3efi.com/
http://www.diyautotune.com
http://www.megasquirtpnp.com/



Here are some helpful tutorials
Braineack: How to make and install your own Diy MegaSquirt

Braineack: 90-97 DIYPNP MS-II Assembly!! Now offering 90-00 DIYPNP Units



Here are some people that have run IRTBs and Megasquirt on a Miata
FooSchnickens What what what? *UPDATE* IT LIVES!!

yes this is jj AE101 Individual Throttle Body fuel issues! halp!
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Old 12-14-2010, 12:41 PM   #18 (permalink)
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Default 17. test pipe

In the United States, the Clean Air Act says you must not tamper with or remove your federally mandated emissions control equipment. This includes the catalytic converter. If you're driving a mildly tuned street car there really is no good reason NOT to run a catalytic converter. They're cheap and they really do help clean up tailpipe emissions. However, the precious metals inside the catalytic converter can become contaminated, damaged or otherwise ineffective if your car is not tuned properly (excessively rich or lean). This is why I suggest you may want to run a test pipe until you get your ECU dialed in correctly. Then you can put your catalytic converter back on. Unless your car has a radical race motor your should be able to get your car to pass most tailpipe emissions tests so long as you have a good tune and a catalytic converter. All bets are off for people in California, a place with much more strict requirements, or those who live in other countries as the requirements are too varied to list here. You are responsible for knowing the applicable law and following it.



Test pipes are either designed to be direct replacement for the OEM catalytic converter or they're universal and meant to be cut and welded as part of a custom exhaust. You can get them at a variety of places:

Techno Toy Tuning
Flyin' Miata
Boss Frog
Enthuza
Mazdaspeed Motorsports Development
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Old 12-20-2010, 12:00 PM   #19 (permalink)
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Default 18. synchronization

It is important to ensure that your throttle bodies are synchronized so that each throttle plate opens exactly the same amount at the same time. The AE101/AE111 factory workshop manual has details on how to accomplish this. To assist you will want a syncrometer to verify everything is well balanced.

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Old 12-20-2010, 01:15 PM   #20 (permalink)
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Default Re: Toyota AE101/AE111 4A-GE Miata ITB Resources

19. miscellaneous

Aeroquip lines and fittings
Small in-line Check valves for vac lines
Maybe source for various NPT fittings
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Old 12-22-2010, 12:53 PM   #21 (permalink)
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Default Re: Toyota AE101/AE111 4A-GE Miata ITB Resources

Okay, I've decided to open this thread up for discussion and contribution from other members. Please note this is a work in progress and updates will be as often as I can get to it. But with the holidays approaching I know my efforts will be sporadic. If you have useful technical knowledge to add to this thread please post it below and I'll incorporate it in the appropriate section above. Thanks.
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Old 12-23-2010, 07:28 AM   #22 (permalink)
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Default Re: Toyota AE101/AE111 4A-GE Miata ITB Resources

Sync equip

The single channel sync you have listed is nice. If you can spend the $80-$100 for a 4 channel your life will be deluxe. Then again, a good scrounge could find 4 vac gauges on the cheap and make one.


or


http://www.parts-unlimited.com/produ...roductId=45508


Yamaha makes a nice remote mounted IAC valve for the R1 bike and ski. I haven't tried to use one, but it looks doable.

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Old 12-23-2010, 03:44 PM   #23 (permalink)
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Default Re: Toyota AE101/AE111 4A-GE Miata ITB Resources

good read

http://www.77e21.info/mstuning.htm
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Old 01-27-2011, 04:21 PM   #24 (permalink)
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Default Re: Toyota AE101/AE111 4A-GE Miata ITB Resources

Quote:
Originally Posted by freedomgli View Post
19. miscellaneous

Aeroquip lines and fittings
Small in-line Check valves for vac lines
Maybe source for various NPT fittings
This is an excellent resource!!
I thought under 19) could put some CAM spec from Intregal's website.

Some information to help maximize the ITB's
Attached Files
File Type: pdf Cam Specs.pdf (19.3 KB, 83 views)
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Old 02-11-2011, 11:46 AM   #25 (permalink)
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Default Re: Toyota AE101/AE111 4A-GE Miata ITB Resources

thanks your share
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Old 03-07-2011, 06:50 AM   #26 (permalink)
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Default Re: Toyota AE101/AE111 4A-GE Miata ITB Resources

Wow, awesome thread! Full of so many useful info! Thanks!
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Old 04-02-2011, 09:47 PM   #27 (permalink)
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Default Re: Toyota AE101/AE111 4A-GE Miata ITB Resources

anyone running yet?
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Old 04-10-2011, 07:27 PM   #28 (permalink)
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Default Re: Toyota AE101/AE111 4A-GE Miata ITB Resources

No, not yet. Not me anyway.

Owning a house really puts a damnper on things. That and I have other parts of the car to tend to as well.

I have a feeling the electronics/tuning portion of this ITB build is going to COMPLETELY own my face.

90R and Freedomgli, I have a feeling you will recieve many MANY PMs from me.
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Old 04-10-2011, 11:02 PM   #29 (permalink)
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Default Re: Toyota AE101/AE111 4A-GE Miata ITB Resources

Quote:
Originally Posted by 90R View Post
anyone running yet?
Mine is in the works, should be completed shortly.
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Old 04-12-2011, 06:39 PM   #30 (permalink)
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Default Re: Toyota AE101/AE111 4A-GE Miata ITB Resources

When you get around to it. Plan on some port work. Gabe made the throat of the mani just a tad bigger than the port.
This is nice because you'll be able to grind your own transition.

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